Click here to view Greg Brittles DPhil thesis:
Below are links to the past issues of the BCryo email Newsletter which are full of industry news and updates:
The Institute of Physics and the Institute of Refrigeration This new monograph brings together the fundamentals of cryogenic liquid behaviour in small and large-scale storage systems gained as a result of 50 years experience and research by the author. The text is based on research findings on the convective and evaporative behaviour of cryogenic fluids, aimed at improving the design, construction and operation of low-loss cryogenic liquid storage systems, with a view to minimising cost and improving operational safety.
The monograph contains: A discussion of the complex surface evaporation processes associated with the conductive, convective and molecular contributions. Consideration of the various sources of heat inflow into a cryogenic storage system, and the extent to which the heat may be absorbed by the cold vapour to minimise boiloff rate. The behaviour of multi-component liquid mixtures in storage systems which can give rise to density stratification and spontaneous, unexpected variations in boil-off rate or rollover. A discussion on the avoidance of boil-off transients so that the safe storage of liquid mixtures, such as LNG and LPG, as well as single component liquids, can be assured.
A discussion on the trouble-free transfer of all cryogenic liquids in terms of adequate liquid sub-cooling, and the avoidance of 2-phase flow. A chapter on safety describes working experience and good practice with cryogens ranging from liquid helium, hydrogen and neon, through the liquid air gases to hydrocarbon mixtures including LNG and LPG. General comments on the safe operation of cryogen-free systems The author, Ralph Scurlock, is Emeritus Professor of Cryogenic Engineering, and formerly Director of the Institute of Cryogenics, University of Southampton, UK. In 1999, Ralph Scurlock was selected by the CEC for the Samuel C. Collins Award for his work on cryogenic tedlnology. He was the first person from outside the USA to be awarded this prestigious prize.
He is the author of many papers and several books including “Low Temperature Behaviour of Solids”, 1965, “History and Origins of Cryogenics”,1994, and “Low Loss Dewars and Tanks”, 2004. The new monograph will be published later in 2005 and can be ordered from Kryos Technology, 22 Brookvale Road, Southampton, S017 1QP, United Kingdom. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Price: £55.00 sterling, plus postage and packing.
Since publication of the first edition in 1970, the Cryogenics Safety Manual has become widely accepted as an invaluable reference source for users of cryogenic fluids. The Manual is intended for the guidance of all persons engaged in the production or handling of cryogenic fluids whether on an industrial scale, in research establishments or laboratories.
The Manual is organized into five sections. Chapter one describes the general safety requirements applicable to all cryogenic fluids covered in the Manual. The remaining four sections look at the particular hazards of defined categories of cryogenic fluids. Chapter two discusses the atmospheric gases, nitrogen, oxygen and argon; Chapter three covers the flammable gases, liquefied natural gas, ethylene and ethane; Chapter four is concerned with the problems of handling gaseous and liquid hydrogen; and Chapter five deals with small-scale usage of the rare gases helium, neon, krypton and xenon.
In publishing the fourth edition of the Cryogenics Safety Manual, the British Cryogenics Council has made minor changes to sections of the text to reflect the introduction of certain new regulations which have come into force since the previous edition and, in addition, increased emphasis on some key aspects of safety. The bibliography has also been expanded to include the most recent literature references.
The Manual is available from the Institute of Refrigeration,
76 Mill Lane,
Tel: 0181 647 7033,
Fax: 0181 773 0165.
Price is £25 for non-members and £23 for members, including P&P.
The Cryogenic Fluids Databook (ISBN 0-9543030-0-8) was published in July 2002 by the British Cryogenics Council. The aim of the Cryogenic Fluids Databook is to provide a ready source of reference to the physical and thermodynamic properties of certain of the commonly used permanent gases including air, argon, helium, hydrogen, krypton, methane, neon, nitrogen and oxygen. The properties shown for each gas are those generally required when designing cryogenic systems.
It is intended that the Databook will serve as a convenient source of information for initial design purposes. For each fluid, the properties are presented in tabular form together with thermodynamic diagrams. In each case, the tables are preceded by fixed-point data, the source of the data and, where necessary, a summary of the behaviour of the fluid. For safety information please refer to the Cryogenics Safety Manual, also published by the British Cryogenics Council.
Copies of the Databook can be ordered from:
The Institute of Refrigeration
Kelvin House 76,
Surrey SM5 2JR
The purchase price of the Databook is £45-00 (Forty-five pounds sterling) plus postage. There may be a small additional charge for purchases by credit card. Copies of the Cryogenics Safety Manual, published by the British Cryogenics Council, can also be purchased from the Institute of Refrigeration (see above). Enquiries should be directed to Mrs. M. Pullen or, in her absence, Mrs. M. Rodway at the Institute of Refrigeration: Tel: +44 (0)20 8647 7033 Fax: +44 (0)20 8773 0165 E-mail: email@example.com
Links to related sites
- The UK Magnetics Society – ukmagsoc.org.uk/
- British Compressed Gases Association – BCGA and BCGA Publications
- British Vacuum Council (BVC) – british-vacuum-council.org.uk
- Cryogenic Society of America – cryogenicsociety.org
- General Cryogenic Information – scienceclarified.com/
- Cryogenics Wikipedia Entry – wikipedia.org
- Cryogenic Instrumentation Research Laboratory – cirl.lowtemp.org
- The Cryogenics Society of Europe – cryosoceurope.org
- Cryogenic Association of Japan – csj.or.jp
- The Cryogenic Society of America – cryogenicsociety.org
- CryoGas International – cryogas.com
- gasworld – gasworld.com
- The Indian Cryogenics Council – iuac.res.in
- The Institute of Cryogenics –www.southampton.ac.uk
- The international Society of Cryosurgery – societyofcryosurgery.org
- International Instutute of Refrigeration – iifiir.org
- The Society for Cryobiology – societyforcryobiology.org
- The Society for Low Temperature Biology – sltb.info
- European Microkelvin Collaboration – microkelvin.eu
- Institute of Physics Low Temperature Group – iop.org
- International Cryogenic Engineering Committee – mgt-icec.web.cern.ch
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The British Cryogenics Council is not responsible for the contents or reliability of any linked websites and does not necessarily endorse the views expressed within them. The listing of a link shall not be taken as endorsement of any kind. We cannot guarantee that these links will work all of the time and we have no control over the availability of linked pages.